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Proper planting and care for garden strawberries

Strawberries are a favorite baby treat. A rare summer resident does not cultivate at least a small plot with this berry on his plot. Strawberries can be small-fruited (alpine) and large-fruited (gardening). The first is a cultivated forest species (Fragaria vesca var. Alpina). The second in the wild form does not occur. It is about her and will be discussed in the material.

Garden strawberries and strawberries: feel the difference!

The kind of strawberry garden is otherwise called the strawberry pineapple, from the Latin name Fragaria ananassa. Of course, this plant has nothing to do with pineapples. Its occurrence is due to the process of free-pollination between the Chilean and Virginian strawberries. Today, there are about 10 thousand varieties of strawberries, which are often mistakenly called strawberries..

Garden strawberries (pineapple)

Strawberries and strawberries are different species of the same botanical genus.. It’s impossible to find real strawberries on store shelves, and in the garden it grows only with collectors and breeders. In nature, this plant grows in the southern regions of Russia, Europe and Central Asia. From strawberry garden strawberry has a number of significant differences:

  1. Strawberry fruits are much smaller, more rounded, their color is closer to magenta and not to red.
  2. Fruits and flowers of strawberries are taken out on the shoots above the leaves., and strawberries are located below.
  3. Strawberry fruit difficult to separate from bracts.
  4. Flowers strawberry dioecioustherefore, very few fruits form on the bushes.

The taste and aroma of strawberry and strawberry fruit is expressed, as a rule, equally well.

From a strictly scientific point of view, the fruits of plants of the genus Strawberry are not berries, but nuts, the very ones that are commonly called “seeds”. Juicy edible part that carries many fruits, is formed by the growth of receptacle.

How to choose a variety for cultivation in the garden?

When choosing a variety of garden strawberries for planting, you must first decide on the type of fruiting. Ordinary plants bloom and give the crop once per season. Repairers bear fruit during the entire growing season.

All summer, having fresh berry on the table is a tempting prospect. But repair grades, apart from their merits, have some disadvantages:

Benefitsdisadvantages
Fruiting whole vegetative season

High yield

Saving space on the plot (there is no need to keep several varieties with different maturity)

Lower frost resistance

Great need for fertilizer and irrigation

Early aging of the bush associated with the depletion of plant generative resources

The second important point when choosing - the appointment of the fruit. It is necessary to decide for what strawberries will be grown: for fresh consumption, for preservation or for sale.

Fragrant varieties

Among the varieties with excellent dessert taste and aroma can be noted:

  • Deroyal;
  • Kimberly;
  • Lambada;
  • Polka;
  • Wim Tard;
  • Mize Schindler;
  • Pineberry

Berries for preservation and freezing

Strawberries to be used for preservation or freezingshould have a denser consistency. For this purpose, suitable varieties:

  • Vima Zanta;
  • Kent;
  • Susie;
  • Tago;
  • Totem;
  • Kamarose;
  • Avis Delight

Best repair grades

For sale it is better to take exactly remontant or photon-neutral varietiesthat can give the crop to the maximum. In addition, the fruits of such strawberries should be well kept and transportable. For example:

  • Mara de Bois;
  • Queen Elizabeth II;
  • Diamond;
  • Albion;
  • Evie 2;
  • Victoria.

Other factors that need to be taken into account in the selection of varieties of garden strawberries - ease of care and resistance to weather conditions. If it is not possible to spend a lot of time on the beds and take care of the bushes, preference should be given to bezeless varieties. In regions with severe winters It is important to choose frost-resistant strawberries. In a humid climate A serious argument is resistance to fungal infections.

How to prepare planting material?

For the successful cultivation of garden strawberries is not enough to buy a good variety and plant it on the garden. Seedlings before planting need to properly prepare:

  1. Inspect the bushes, reject the sick and weak, with poorly developed apical kidney.
  2. Roots pruned up to a length of 7-10 cm.
  3. For 2 hours put the roots in a solution of the drug "Fitosporin-M". This will protect the seedlings from a variety of fungal and bacterial infections.
  4. Powder roots root stimulation powder (“Kornevin” or “Heteroauxin”).

Instead of stimulants, you can use the old "old-fashioned" method and cook clay mash: in 10 liters of water, dilute the clay to the consistency of liquid sour cream and add 1 kg of well-rotted manure. Strawberry roots are dipped into this solution, dried for half an hour and planted in well-moistened pits.

Strawberry seedlings better planted immediately after purchase. You can store it for a short time - 2-3 days, prikopav in a cool, humid place.

Propagation of strawberries with mustache and horns, planting and care

Most garden strawberry varieties are easy throws air slips - mustache carrying young rosettes. If you want to multiply your favorite variety, choose a strong fertile bush and leave 3 tendrils on it. Without separating the daughter outlet from the mother bush, it is fixed to the ground, instilled and watered. If the layering has a continuation of the outlet, it pinch.

Propagation of strawberries with a mustache

On rooting usually takes about a month. After the young plant has stuck, it is separated from the parent bush, dug and transferred to a permanent place.

If the variety does not give a mustache, you can propagate it by dividing the bush - the so-called "horns." The horns are rosettes formed on a common royal rhizome.. The older the strawberry bush, the more it can have horns.

Propagation of strawberries with horns

Shrubs are usually divided in spring. The plant needs to be dug up and lowered by roots in a basin with water. After washing off the ground, they inspect the bush and separate with a knife one outlet from the rhizome section.. As a rule, strawberries are divided very easily, and you can even do without a knife. Affiliated plants are immediately planted in a permanent place.

Often practiced seed reproduction of strawberries. This way, good breeds are well bred, and it is much cheaper than buying seedlings.

Diseases and pests, prevention in spring and autumn

Even pre-treatment of seedlings with fungicides does not protect strawberries from disease for life. The plantation may be affected by some viral infections that are carried by aphids.:

  1. Xanthosis. Young leaves and rosette center lose chlorophyll and turn yellow. The leaves become shallow and curl upwards, strongly shortened petioles are formed.
  2. Rugosity. Pale spots appear on the leaves. In these areas, the growth of tissues stops, the sheet bends and becomes wrinkled.
  3. Greening petals. The corolla of the flower is formed by small, with greenish petals. Fetching fruits dry, not having time to ripen, the plant dies.
  4. Verticilous wilting. The leaves turn pale, are stunted, the plant takes on an oppressed, flattened appearance. The plant can die in a few days (lightning form), and in 2-3 years (chronic form).

The main preventive measure against the spread of strawberry diseases at the site is to cultivate varieties that are immune to them.. Sick plants should be immediately removed and burned. It is very important to deal with pests in a timely manner.

In addition to aphids, strawberries and moths, weevil, raspberry-colored beetle, green bug, wireworms, nematodes can affect the strawberry and mite For prevention in the spring before flowering it is necessary to carry out the treatment with drugs "Horus" or "HOM".

Weekly watering and periodic spraying of a strawberry plantation with a solution of Fitosporin-M will help prevent fungal infections.

Protection of strawberries from heat and frost

Strawberries planted on a bed can suffer from the sun until they take root and become effective. It is necessary to pritenyat. You can build a screen from a special sunscreen mesh. Some fruit growers simply cover the planting with an inverted plywood box.

In the summer heat, it is important to prevent the soil drying under strawberries.. The best way is mulching. As mulch is used as all sorts of organics, and black agro-textile, which allows air and water to pass through.

In central Russia and in the south, strawberries normally winter without special shelter. It is enough to sprinkle a peat layer or sawdust for the winter. In colder regions, it is better to additionally place an arc over the bed and in the fall cover it with 2-3 layers of thick agrospan.

So that the strawberries are not suffocated and not straightened out, it is not necessary to cover it before frost Experienced gardeners are advised to do this only when the temperature drops to -15⁰C. So the bushes have time to get hardened and become more stable.

Conclusion

Garden strawberries - culture, easy to cultivate in their personal plots. It is easily propagated, has many varieties for every taste and for any purpose.. With some effort to protect planting from diseases and pest invasion, you can get a big return on the crop. And if you build racks for vertical or pyramidal placement of strawberry bushes - also save space. Not to mention aesthetic pleasure.