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Types and varieties of mountain ash

Forest rowan - extremely useful plant. And the honey plant, and its wood is beautiful, and feeds the birds in the winter, and is good at itself.

One misfortune: its fruits, though healing, are bitter.. Because they are considered of little value. But this is if you take a dick, rowan ordinary.

Varietal is another matter.. About her and speech.

How to understand the mountain ash?

Our common, ubiquitous red rowan belongs to the large botanical genus Sorbus. In turn, almost all modern cultivars of this plant originate from this plant.

Or rather, from its two varietal-type species: Moravian (Central Europe) and nevezhinskaya (Eastern Europe).

Moravian mountain ash discovered in the Czech Republic in the XIX century and named after the region where it was found - Moravia. Its sweet fruits, 1 cm in diameter, made this variety interesting for breeders.

For example, varieties of Edulis, Bissnery and Concentrate originated from it.

Almost all modern cultural varieties are descended from two varieties of rowan sorts, Moravian and Nevezhinskaya.

Nevezhinsky clone was also found by chance - in a forest near the village of Nevezhino, Vladimir region. Sweet, completely without bitterness, the fruits conquered the local peasants, who quickly realized to plant this rowan and sell seedlings to neighbors.

And this also happened in the XIX century. So almost simultaneously in two ends of Europe, nature presented man with a sweet rowan instead of a bitter one.

Sometimes nevezhinskuyu mountain ash is called "Nezhin". The vintner Fyodor Smirnov confused everyone, who in the old days was selling tincture on its fruit. Not wanting to reveal the secrets of the recipe to competitors, he deliberately threw out one syllable and called his product “Nezhinskaya”.

Ivan Vladimirovich Michurin was very interested in breeding varietal rowan trees. Many of the varieties created by him to date have either been lost, or they have been over-pollinated and have lost their original characteristics, or are stored only in scientific collections. But those that survived, often become the basis for modern breeding work.

From a strictly scientific point of view, calling the fruits of mountain ash "berries" is wrong. Correctly say "apple". Fruits of the same type form quince, apple and pear.

Titanium

This variety is one of the surviving Michurin creations.. It was created by the difficult crossing of a mountain ash, a pear and a red-leafed apple tree.

Its characteristics:

  1. Srednerosloy tree (up to 5 meters) with a rounded sparse crown. Shoots are straight, the color of the bark is dull brown.
  2. The leaves are glossy, dark green.
  3. Inflorescence-shields of medium diameter, the color of the petals is white.
  4. Fruits are slightly ribbed, rounded, weighing 1.2 grams. The skin is dark red, waxish. The flesh is yellow, sweet and sour, tart. The use is universal.

Grade Titan frost and drought-resistant, not affected by disease.

Rowan variety Titan was bred Michurin, frost and drought-resistant, not affected by disease
The chemical composition of the fruit
Sugar10,2%
Organic acids1,4%
Vitamin C33 mg / 100 g
Dry matter20%

Bead

Variety created Candidate of Agricultural Sciences Tatiana Kirillovna Poplavskaya. Fanatically devoted to science, in the 70s of the 20th century she was actively engaged in the search for and restoration of the lost Michurin varieties of mountain ash.

Bead - one of the first varieties that do not have a hint of astringency. It is a product of free pollination of nevezhinskaya rowan.

Characteristics and description of the variety:

  1. A plant of moderate growth, height of 3 meters. Shoots are gray-brown, straight. Fruiting begins, according to various sources, at 3 or 5 years of age.
  2. Leaves are light green, gear.
  3. Inflorescences are large, with white flowers.
  4. Fruits of the correct rounded shape, with a red skin, weighing 1,2-1,9 grams. The flesh is cream-colored, with a hint of cranberry flavor, but without a strong acid. Purpose is universal. Ripen early, by the end of August.

Especially valuable advantages of the variety - high resistance to extreme frosts, drought, diseases. Productivity is high.

Rowan variety Bead has no astringency, is highly resistant to extreme frosts, drought, diseases
The chemical composition of the fruit
Sugar10%
Organic acids2,2%
Vitamin C67 mg / 100 g
Carotene9 mg / 100 g
Dry matter25%

Liqueur Michurina

One of the Michurin varieties, lost and restored. He has a lot in common with one of his “parents” - black chokeberry.

Characteristics of a garden rowan variety:

  1. Medium-sized plant, about 5 meters, with sparse oval crown. Sometimes found in shrub form. It gives strong annual growths (up to 30 cm).
  2. The leaves are dark green, alternate, pinnate.
  3. Beautiful dense inflorescences with a shield diameter of 10 cm. The color of the petals is white-pink.
  4. Fruits are dark purple, almost black, weighing 1 g, ripen in September, stored for a month. The taste resembles a black chokeberry - sweet, slightly astringent. Purpose - for the production of liqueur-type wines, preserves.

Grade advantages: high winter hardiness and moderate drought resistance. Disadvantage: fruit may be affected by rot.

Rowan varieties of liqueur bred Michurin, great for making liqueur-type wines, preserves
The chemical composition of the fruit
Sugar10,8%
Organic acids1,3%
Vitamin C15 mg / 100 g
Carotene2 mg / 100 g
Cellulose2.7 g / 100 g

Ruby

The Michurin variety was also lost, but it was found, propagated and transferred to the varietal testing of TK Poplavskaya. Like all old Michurin forms, this species of mountain ash has a slight astringency in taste.

Its characteristics:

  1. A low tree, 3 meters in height, with a drooping crown. Skeletal branches are located almost at a right angle, the shoots are straight, with light brown covers.
  2. The leaves are light green, with a finely stitched edge and a pubescent stem.
  3. Scuteine ​​narrow, flowers small, pinkish-white.
  4. Fruits are rounded flat, weighing 1.3 g. The skin is ruby-colored, the flesh is yellow. The taste is sweet and sour, a little tart. The purpose of the fruit is to be processed into juices, jellies, wines, liqueurs, jelly. Suitable for drying.

To low temperatures, the plant is stable.

Ruby variety ashberry is good for processing into juices, jellies, wines, liqueurs, jelly
The chemical composition of the fruit
Sugar12,4%
Organic acids1,3%
Vitamin C21 mg / 100 g
Anthocyanins948 mg / 100 g
After drying, the fruits of mountain ash of the Ruby variety can be replaced by raisins. To do this, put them in a gauze bag and hang for a while for the battery.

Scarlet large

A variety bred by the Central Genetic Laboratory. Michurin (today the Institute of Genetics and Selection of Fruit Plants). An interesting, very showy plant, with really large fruits for the red apple fruit.

Characteristics of the variety:

  1. Tree height - 5 meters. Crohn middle density, broad-pyramidal shape. Weakly pubescent straight shoots with gray-brown bark and a variety of large lentils.
  2. The leaves are dark green, with shirokolantsetovidnymi plates, shiny.
  3. Wide shields with a large number of flowers.
  4. Fruits from 1.7 to 2.5 grams, slightly ribbed, juicy. Scarlet skin, spicy taste, slightly more acidic than other varieties, without bitterness. Appointment table and technical.

The variety is able to tolerate extreme frosts down to -50⁰С. Resistant to diseases and pests.

Alaya large varieties ashberry can tolerate extreme frosts down to -50 -С
The chemical composition of the fruit
Sugar8,4%
Organic acids1,9%
Vitamin C21 mg / 100 g
Anthocyanins625 mg / 100 g

White, yellow and orange ornamental varieties

In addition to the usual for the eyes of red and black ash trees, the efforts of breeders bred varieties with yellow, orange and even white fruits, able to decorate any garden.

For example, Yellow variety with thin flexible branches, which at a bountiful harvest lean to the ground. From its fruits are obtained mountain ash kvasses, original fillings for pies, jams.

Rowan Yellow variety is good for making kvass, jam, as a filling for pies

From orange fruit is very decorative Spark grade - one of the most heat-resistant and drought-resistant. As it ripens, it changes the color of the apples from yellow to fiery orange.

Rowan Daughter Kubov - a new variety, derived by spontaneous hybridization of the nevezhinskaya Kubova. The fruits of this tree also have a bright orange color in the phase of ripeness, and their taste is juicy, bright, sour-sweet, without a hint of bitterness or astringency.

Productivity varieties Daughter Kubov phenomenal - up to 90 kg from one tree.

You may be interested in our publications:

  • Description varieties mountain ash Garnet.
  • Useful properties and contraindications of black chokeberry.
  • Useful properties and contraindications of mountain ash red.

Kubov itself also has orange fruits, but the yield is not so high. Cubic - a derivative form of nevezhinskoy rowan, created by popular selection. Her apples are slightly elongated, pentahedral, with a very pleasant taste.

But white-fruited ryabinki, unfortunately, is not suitable for food. For example, the varieties Kena or White Swan (White Swan) are very bitter fruits. However, their compactness and high ornamentation allows you to create an interesting play of colors among other rowan trees.

Decorative white-fruited rowan varieties of Kena or White Swan (White Swan) are not suitable for food.

By combining in plantings, for example, a high Scarlet large, tender Yellow and miniature White Swan, you can get a combination of advantage and beauty.

All varieties of mountain ash are self-sterile. In order to get a quality crop from them, you need to plant several different varieties side by side or plant them in the crown of one tree.