Apple tree is the most popular fruit tree not only in central Russia, but now in Siberia.
Thanks to the selection, several frost-resistant varieties were bred, but the question remains relevant for the gardener. what time of year is it right to plant this crop.
When is it better to plant an apple tree?
The climatic features of the regions of the country may limit not only the choice of apple varieties, but also oblige the gardener to adhere to a strict planting schedule.
So, for residents in the southern and central regions of the country, planting time of any kind, usually is autumn.
Eastern Siberia and Primorye It was not the most favorable place for apple growth, but thanks to new varieties, it takes root quite well in the spring, closer to the middle of May.
There are several frost-resistant varieties.. These are saplings of young trees of Antonovka, Medunitsa, the Sorceress, the Gift of Autumn, the Young Naturalist, Bessemyanki Michurin and Silver Hoof.
Planting in the fall and its features
Depending on the region, the cold can be felt in different periods. The fact of the onset of frost, is a point of reference for planting apple trees.
The best way to determine the moment when to plant an apple tree - to be guided by leaf fall, all work with planting trees is best done only after it ends.The onset of frost is the starting point for planting apple trees in the fall
Usually, for rooting the tree will take from 15 to 25 days depending on the varietyin the period from September 20 to October 20.
That is, you have almost a month to plant even an apple orchard, but now let us tell you about the features of the autumn planting.
If we consider mainly the harsh landing areas, there will be one small drawback here, in terms of additional work.
but the fall option has an undeniable benefit:
- competently planted seedlings in the cold period take root well and grow stronger, and with the arrival of spring start sharply in growth;
- later in spring, the roots of the tree will always benefit more from a damp earth with rotting compost;
- Autumn planting promotes the development of frost immunity in an apple tree.
How to plant a tree in spring
If for some objective reasons you did not manage to plant an apple tree in the fall, there is always a backup option. Of course, he will make a little hurry, because you will have significantly less time to disembark than in the fall.
This period usually lasts less than a month, you should hurry finish work by mid-may. And again, we point out the positive and negative points of landing.
Let's start with the good in the spring there is no need to fear the freezing of tree roots. However, you will face a number of problems when choosing a spring planting:
- during the winter, the moisture goes into the ground, and the new tree will have to be systematically and abundantly watered;
- planting stock is always more expensive and more difficult to find quality, even in nurseries.
The soil dries quickly in springthat will adversely affect the spring planting of an apple, if it does not maintain humidity at the same level.
To fix the result will help chopped dry grass or humusthat will need to be laid in the base of the apple tree trunk. So you will avoid drying out of the upper layer and the rapid growth of weeds.
What can be called a serious mistake in planting an apple tree? Gardeners admit most of the violations while planting, and only a part when caring for a tree. Here are the most important points.
Planting an apple tree too deep in a hole the roughest, and perhaps the most important, about the misstep of novice gardeners.
The tree will grow very slowly, since the landing boundary relative to the root collar is not correctly defined (trunk section from root to crown).
Newbies, buying a bush from a nursery, which can additionally have an inoculation above the root collar, up to about 8 cm, often confuse them by planting a tree before it.
The norm for planting is the location of the root collar at ground level or a couple of centimeters higher.
Where is the root neck on the trunk? It is not difficult to determine by holding a wet rag over it. So, where the color will change from green to brown, there is the very border.When planting an apple, the location of the root collar should be at ground level or a couple of centimeters higher
Watering the tree, including when planting, abundantly with mineral fertilizers will destroy the microflorain which positive bacteria are no longer able to survive.
The same can be said for organic tree nutrition. In no case do not use fresh or bad rotting manure.
Introducing such bait, you will doom the apple trees to death, since the ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emitted by fresh manure displaces oxygen from the soil under the root.
How to choose the seedlings
The main purpose of the choice is the correct determination of the state of the seedling, that is, its suitability for growth and effective fruiting.
Failure to understand the basic signs of a good tree will lead to the fact that the fruit tree will either grow too long or dry out.
Size and number of roots of an apple tree render on her engraftment tremendous value. In pursuit of a perennial huge bush-sapling, in the hope of growing a powerful apple tree, it can lead to dire consequences.
Note the condition and quantity them in the root system. Of course, a large seedling has a lot of them, and for the most part they are damaged, as they are grown in nurseries and dug in a mechanized way (plow).Do not rush to buy an apple tree with an open root system ahead of planting time
Having planted such a bush, it will be necessary to immediately cut off all the branches of the tree crown, otherwise the branches will dry out due to broken roots or they will hurt.
At the same age the root is small and always whole. Well, besides, it is no longer necessary to rush to buy an apple tree with an open root system ahead of planting time, which is equally true for any planting season. The bush simply does not take root, but it will be difficult to save it.
There is one way out: drop it in the basement before landingwhere the temperature is maintained from 0 to -40 C.
First choose a suitable place and dig a hole. Preparations for planting may vary depending on the nature of the cultivation of the land and its composition.
As a general rule, you can plant a tree in a hole only 10-12 years later after preparing the place. The pit should be such that the root interferes easily without bending.
During this time, the soil warms up and settles, and the root no longer drops below the root collar. The exception is the autumn planting, so you need to endure 3-4 weeks.
At each bush, prepare at least 800 grams of ash and fertilizer. If it is humus, then no more than one bucket. The dose of mineral fertilizers is very small, usually it is not more than 1 kg.It is necessary to plant an apple tree in a hole 10-12 days later after preparation of a hole for it
And once again about the types of soil, because this will depend on the method of preparation:
- with fertile soil and careful loosening, the pit has dimensions of 35 cm in depth and 45 in width;
- in heavy soil 70 in depth and meter in width;
- if it is a land that has crushed stone and coated clay in its composition, then try to dig a hole 90 cm, and make its width a little more than 120 cm.
Prepared land is poured into a hole and once again loosened.. Then leave the recess for the root and wait for the landing.
Tree planting technique
The young tree pruned all dried shoots.. It is usually rational to leave no more than five. Then a wooden peg is knocked out into a hole for the root by 2/3 of its length, and then the root of the tree itself is lowered.
Then the earth is gradually poured into the hole and ram layer by layer. This should be done almost to the very edge of the pit, leaving a pit to hold the water.
In order to avoid breakage of the trunk of the tree, tie it with a string to a peg. Only after this procedure can be poured abundantly under the root, up to about 5 buckets of water, depending on the time of landing.
In the remaining pit, mulch should be made with sawdust or humus.
Pruning dry branches and systematized timely watering are components of the successful cultivation of apples and frost resistance of the tree.
First-year saplings are enough to be watered 3-4 times in the summer, pouring up to 4 buckets of water over their roots, provided there is no drought.
You may be interested in our publications:
- How to grow an apple tree from a seed or a branch at home?
- When to collect apples for storage? And how to do it right.
- 5 ways to freeze apples at home.
Constantly loosen the soil under the bush and do not let the weed grow.
If flowers appear in the second year, they are usually removed., since it is barren. After receiving the fruit for the first time, squeeze the branches, removing the dry ones.
Until mid summer it is important to make at least five nitrogen supplements, based on mineral and biological fertilizers.Planted apple tree needs watering, feeding and cutting off primrose
Parting instructions to a novice gardener
Hope that These simple tips will help you not only competently plant an apple treebut also regularly receive a good harvest of fruits.
To do this, annually monitor the condition of the tree, cut the diseased branches and do not forget to water in time.