Each gardener seeks to plant an apple tree with tasty fruits on his plot. Such a tree tolerates the changeable climate of central Russia and does not require undue attention.
Apple Spartan bred by Canadian breeders in 1926, by crossing these varieties such as McIntosh and Pepin Newtown Yellow.
The goal of breeding was the urgent need to grow apples on an industrial scale. Therefore needed a variety with good presentation, transportability and long shelf life.
Description of apple variety
It prefers a temperate climate, with warm winters and not humid air. Low frost resistanceif the tree is not prepared for the cold, it may die.
The ripening period falls in mid-October.. Refers to self-pollinated varieties.
Characteristics of fruits and trees
Apple Spartan is fast growing, but the tree reaches average heights. The leaves are small or medium, dark green in color, smooth, slightly twisted upward edges.
The branches in relation to the trunk are angled at 70 degrees. The crown is very lush, has a predisposition to the appearance of an excessive number of unnecessary stems. Shoots unusual, dark cherry color, slightly pubescent.
Due to the nature of the tree, apple Spartan should not be forgotten and skip the trimming procedure.Apple Spartan is fast growing, but the tree reaches average heights
In most cases, the fruits are round with a slight flattening, but conical apples can also be found. Because of its Canadian origin, these fruits can boast an unusual color.
Initially, they are yellow, but as they mature, maroon and purple spots begin to appear.which gradually cover almost the entire surface. There is also a wax coating on it.
These apples do not differ in large size, only 130-190 grams. They taste sweet, juicy and aromatic., with a dense consistency.
Advantages and disadvantages
If the tree is properly maintained, it can bring a large amount of crop, this tree bears fruit every year.
Good transportability. It is rarely subject to various diseases.
If you create apples a favorable temperature, then harvest can be stored for 4 to 7 months.
If the tree is grown in the northern regions or in the middle lane, will have to take care of his winter shelter. Apple Spartan does not tolerate frosts and freezing temperatures.
The small size of the fruit, which can gradually decrease due to poor thinning of the branches.
In the 1980s, the Spartan apple tree was zoned throughout Ukraine, but to a greater degree it took root in the north of the country. From this we can conclude that the tree prefers a temperate climate.
It does not tolerate frosts and droughts, as well as heat with high humidity.Apple Spartan does not tolerate frost and drought, as well as heat with high humidity
When choosing a landing site need to pay attention to the following criteria:
- The place must be bright and sunny, otherwise the amount of the resulting crop may be reduced by several times.
- The site should be fertile soil.
- Over-wetting of the root system should not be allowed; therefore, it is necessary to avoid places with elevated groundwater levels.
If the entire site is located on the territory with high groundwater level, do not despair, you can plant trees on the hills and dig a ditch to drain excess moisture.
The best period is considered the end of April or the beginning of September.
The tree loves loamy soil and in order to create comfortable conditions for him, add to the clay soil:
- rotted compost.
Sequence of work:
- Pits should be pulled out at a distance of 4 meters from each other, while their depth should be 50-60 centimeters and a diameter of 1 meter.
- Approximately 30 centimeters of the bottom must be carefully pierced.
- To protect the plant from the appearance of excessive moisture and accumulation of water in the bottom of the pit is laid drainage. It may consist of any means at hand. For example, stones or cut branches of plants.
- After all the work concerning the protection of wood from moisture is completed, the pit is half filled with a fertile layer of soil, then fertilizers are applied consisting of: superphosphate, potassium sulfate, wood ash, rotted manure.
- Upon completion of such a procedure, the soil that was previously dug up must be poured into the pit. By adding fertilizer and drainage, a mound is formed, in which a peg must be dug, it will be the basis for the seedling that has not yet become stronger.
- When planting, the seedling should be carefully placed on a mound and sprinkled with a fertile layer of earth so that the root collar is 5 centimeters higher than the soil level.
As soon as the young seedling is placed in the ground, it must be carefully watered with water, until the soil begins to repel moisture. After that, the soil located around the trunk of the tree should be mulched 5-inch layer.
In the first year of the tree’s life, it is recommended to prune all flowers., so that it would stick on the new place faster.
20-30 liters of water are required per tree, water it in the evening, as the soil dries. In hot weather, it is recommended to practice drip hydration.
When there is a large amount of precipitation, the apple tree does not need to be watered. Enough to make punctures around the trunk of a tree. Their depth should not exceed 40 centimeters. You can select forks or crowbars as tools.
Spartan apple should be fed four times per season at the certain time.
In the period of setting flower budsFor such purposes it is best to use natural fertilizers, such as urea or manure humus.
As soon as flowering beginsThe tree must be strengthened with the following solution:
- 100 liters of water;
- 400 grams of potassium sulphide;
- 500 grams of superphosphate;
- 250 grams of urea.
One young tree will need 15 liters of fertilizer, and 50 liters for an adult.Spartan apple should be fed four times a season at a certain time
When the tree begins to bear fruit It must be fed with 30 liters of the following solution:
- 100 liters of water;
- 500 grams of nitrophoska;
- 10 grams of sodium humate.
After harvesting in wet weather The following fertilizers should be sprinkled around the tree:
- potassium sulfate - 300 grams;
- superphosphate - 300 grams.
If it is dry and hot outside, this dressing should be diluted in water.
In the first year of life, the apical bud and all shoots are removed.which are located under it. Whatever the lateral branches are not fragile, and do not break off during fruiting can not leave two symmetrically located lateral shoots.
When forming the crown of the tree focus on the lateral growth of branches. This is necessary in order to increase its diameter and, accordingly, the stability of the whole apple tree.
It is necessary to remove the shoots that are not located correctly. For example: woven, grow to the trunk, and not from him; rub against each other.
Be sure to remove the dry and suspicious branches.. This procedure is the main prevention of many diseases.When growing a variety of apples Spartan, particular attention should be removed pruning
Preparing for the winter
Considering that the Spartan apple doesn't like the cold, in the winter season she needs extra protection. It is best with the advent of the first frost plentifully pour the tree and prikopat peat 30 centimeters.
Diseases and pests
A distinctive feature of the Spartan variety is high resistance to diseases such as scab and mealy dew. But with insufficient or improper care, the risk of the appearance of the disease still exists.
Scab - the initial sign will be the appearance of black spots on the fruit, such apples are no longer suitable for consumption.
To combat the disease, it is necessary to remove the affected fruit in a timely manner so that the scab does not begin to spread. An effective remedy in this case will be drugs Chorus and Skor.
Mealy dew - extremely rare. It is expressed in the appearance of white bloom on the leaves, which gradually becomes brown and coarse.
Control measures will also be the removal of diseased branches and the use of the drug Strobe.A distinctive feature of the Spartan variety is its high resistance to diseases such as scab and powdery mildew.
Fruit Rot - the essence of the disease is expressed in its name, such apples become inedible. This fact significantly reduces the yield. As a prophylaxis used speed.
Cytosporosis - represents a danger to the tree itself, if the disease is not noticed and cured in time, the apple tree will dry out and die. At the initial stages, dark spots appear on the cortex, which need to be treated with Hom or Funadozol.
Codling moth - feeds on seeds and gnaws the fruit accordingly. To get rid of the pest the tree is sprayed with Fastan.
Apple Blossom - caterpillars that can cause significant damage to yields in general. You can get rid of them with the help of Tsimbush.
To avoid re-infection of diseased branches and fruits must be burned, they can not be used as mulch or for other purposes.
Reviews of apple Spartan
Elizabeth: “Very tasty apples, although the size is too small. In addition, they are very long and belong to the winter varieties, so you can pamper yourself with fresh fruit all year round. All the friends who grow this variety praise him very much. ”
Catherine: “Apples are sweet and crunchy, but their skin is thick and hard, but then as you like, this factor does not bother me. But it’s difficult to take care of a tree, you shouldn’t skip the procedure of branch thinning, otherwise the harvest may not be.
Peter: “The Spartan variety is well kept, but there must be a cold room, otherwise the apples will lose their juiciness and sweetness. By the way, of all my apple trees, this one is the most hardy, it can tolerate even hot and arid summer. ”
Apple Spartan is perfect for central Russia. It is rarely subjected to various diseases and brings a tasty and abundant harvest.
The main thing is not to forget to care for the tree and prepare it for the cold weather in a timely manner.