The turkey, which we are accustomed to consider native, was once brought from America. Concerning the bird is very capricious in breedingas our climatic conditions are very different from the American continent. In modern poultry farming, the breeding of this bird is quite popular, but it has its own nuances. In this article we will talk about incubating turkey eggs at home - how long it will take to produce offspring, temperature, humidity, and other features.
Which incubators to use at home for the withdrawal of poults
Unfortunately, it does not always work out to bring a bird in a natural way, and the livestock will be much smaller than in an incubator.Household incubator
Incubators are divided into two types:
- Heated on top;
- Heated below.
In natural conditions bird hatching eggs from aboveIn connection with this, the embryo of the chick is located exactly in this part. If you take this into account, it means that the heaters should be placed on top. But in this case there is a minus, this is what warm air rises according to the laws of physics. This will cause most of the precious heat to be expelled through the vent.
If you go against the laws of nature and do heated bottomthen heat is used more economically.
In both these cases there is a big minus, heating eggs is uneventhat is not very effective.
Some craftsmen, in order to bring the conditions in the incubator to natural, the heaters are installed in the chamber, and the upper and lower parts are sheathed with metal, which made holes. The height is calculated in accordance with the heater.
Choice of breed turkeys
In order for the livestock to bring not only good offspring, but also to give a large amount of meat, it is worth taking seriously the breed of turkeys.
- North Caucasian Bronze. This breed is popular for a very long time among domestic breeders. In adult form, a bird can reach fifteen kilograms. Egg production, approximately eighty eggs per year.
- Bronze wide chest. It has great similarities with the North Caucasian turkey.
- White wide breasted. This breed is more suitable for high quality meat. Egg production up to one hundred and twenty eggs in twelve months.
How to choose turkey eggs
Before the eggs are sent to the incubator, they must pass strict and very careful selection of the following parameters:
- Correct the form;
- Net shell;
- Smooth surface;
- Lack of any blotches.
When radiating eggs:
- Yolk should be in the center;
- He should not be clear contours;
- Air chamber should be located at the blunt end.
Eggs wash categorically not recommended. The maximum shelf life is ten days. Storage humidity should be 80%. Temperature of 12 degrees, with a plus sign. Store eggs blunt edge up, every fourth day turn over.
- Incubator Prepare one day before laying eggs.
- To maintain the correct level of humidity, the bottom tray is filled with water.
- In the incubator two thermometers are installedbut. Each of them should be above the egg about two centimeters.
- To find out the humidity, take a cloth and tie it to the bottom of one thermometer while the second tip should be located in a tray with water.
- Eggs are marked on both sides., for example, with one cross, with another zero. These simple manipulations will help turn the eggs one hundred and eighty degrees. Use for markings recommend a simple pencil.
- Eggs are very carefully placed in an incubator, so that the marks were all the same.
- Eggs are recommended to turn every three days. so that the chick does not stick to the shell.
- After twenty-five days, coups stopso that the chicks could be born correctly.
Incubation period: what should be the temperature
Incubation lasts about twenty eight days. Within twelve hours after the location of the eggs in the incubator do not disturb. The rest of the time, the eggs are turned every four hours.
The temperature is maintained according to the following principle (see the incubation table):
- 1 - 8 day: a simple thermometer - (+) 37.8 degrees; wet thermometer - up to (+) 30
- 9-21 days: heat is reduced to (+) 37.6 degrees
- 22-25 day: (+) 37 degrees
- Day 26: The period of breeding poults begins, in this case, for five hours, a simple thermometer should show (+) 37.4 degrees, and a humidity thermometer (+) 29
- In the period when the chicks begin to be active in the birthThe temperature is brought to (+) 36.6 degrees. Air intake increase.
Incubation Table: Timing, Temperature, and Humidity
|1 - 7 day||38 ° C||65 %||6 times|
|8 - 14||38 ° C||50 %||6 times|
|15 - 25||37.5 ° C||65 %||4 times + cooling 15 minutes|
|26 - 28||36.6 ° C||70 %||not|
How does the chick develop during the incubation period
With proper process flow in two weeks allantois closes. It is a respiratory organ that plays a very large role in the life of the embryo. This body helps to get the right amount of air.
On the twenty fifth day begins the final period in incubation. At this time, the metabolism of the fetus is completely changed. They acquire their body temperature, therefore, in order not to harm the chick, they use daily cooling for about fifteen minutes.
The appearance of poults into the world: how many days before hatching
Naklev on the shell can be seen after twenty-five daysafter bookmark. Before this happens, experienced poultry farmers recommend using an ovoscope for the last time, that is, enlighten an egg.
If the chick develops correctly, the egg from the inside should be dark before the air chamber. Borders are blurred and moving. As soon as there is a naklev, turns stop.
In the period of the birth of poults, all eggs should be well warmed. Also during this period, oxygen should flow well, for this they regulate ventilation. The chick appears at about the twenty-seventh day.
To make poults appear evenly, on the day of their appearance, the temperature makes more and bring it to 37 degrees. When all the chicks hatch, the shells are harvested, boiled for about twenty minutes and used for turkey poults.
Turkey poults require more thorough care than ordinary chicks. Nine weeks should be kept warm and used when feeding with vitamins, which contains a large amount of protein.
Since kids have no mother, how to eat and drink will have to teach you. For a meal, they knock their finger on a plate of food, and for drinking, they dip their beak into a bowl of warm water.
For chicks, food is given:
- Boiled egg finely ground;
- Defatted cottage cheese;
- Corn croup.
You can also add nettle and dandelion. After the fourteenth day meat offal is introduced into the diet, which is boiled and minced as much as possible.
Positive and negative aspects of the incubator when breeding turkeys
The positive aspects of the incubator include:
- In the absence of chicken can take out the poults;
- You can take control of the whole nestling process;
- Good for large numbersc.
- Are possible blackoutswhich will negatively affect the process;
- Have to to invest in an incubator.
It is worth knowing
- Plots hatch around 10 hours;
- In a day nestlings can be fed and given to them to drink;
- Newborns not worth the first time they need to bother to dry;
- Incubation period for turkey poults is 28 days;
- While cursed it is necessary to check that the crack appears on top;
- Watch for humidity and pour enough water;
- Not often touch the eggs while hatching turkey poults, it will make the process more, positive;
- You can not help the chicks during the birth process so as not to harm;
- If you have violated the turning process, chicks can be born with foot pathology, such individuals are put to sleep;
- Hands must be clean. Make sure that before you take the egg, you do not touch the face with them, so that the sebum does not get on the shell, as it may cause irreparable damage.
- Ensure turkeys and chickens are in different places after birth., it will help to avoid infection. For adults, this rule does not apply.