Fans of mushrooms in our country even more than enough! Only here for a hike in the forest on a "quiet hunt" need the accompanying weather and certain climatic conditions. Not everyone will think about growing mushrooms at home, and almost on an industrial scale. Most consider it a fantasy. However, everything is real. And how to grow mushrooms in the greenhouse or at home, we will tell further.
What mushrooms can be grown at home
The very idea of growing mushrooms at home confronts the choice of a particular species. All varieties suitable for home breeding, do not need special material costs or additional effort. The only exception is champignons, but an experienced gardener will cope with this problem. The choice must be made, first of all, on the basis of the desired profit. All varieties of mushrooms suitable for growing at home can be classified into two main types:
The first are known to all shiitake, oyster mushrooms, as well as winter mushrooms. But to the second - no less popular champignons and koltseviki. Even with small areas, the harvest can be excellent. That is why these varieties are recommended for cultivation on an industrial scale.Growing oyster mushrooms at home on the balcony
Cultivation technology for beginners
The bulk of the time it takes to grow mushrooms is spent on creating a mycelium. However, the advice of experienced mushroom growers suggests that it is better to grow this material yourself. After all, even the best and proven suppliers from time to time greatly fail. Mycelium can be grown in two ways:
- in a grain substrate;
- on wooden sticks.
The choice depends on what kind of mushrooms you plan to grow.Cultivation of mushrooms on a nutrient substrate
Mycelium is grown in a specific substrate. It is recommended to take care that its chemical and mineral composition is as similar as possible to that in which the mushrooms grow in natural conditions. The composition of this medium must be selected again, depending on the type of cultivated mushrooms.
For example, shiitake feel more comfortable in wood, mushrooms - in compost, but oyster mushrooms prefer straw. With proper care, chopped straw, as well as sawdust can provide a harvest of any of the listed types of mushrooms. However, the substrate must be of high quality. This is ensured by its dryness, the absence of mold, as well as unpleasant odors and foreign impurities.
Mycelium is the basis in which there is a large number of germinated mushroom disputes. As soon as this base is placed in the substrate, the process of active growth begins. Initially, you can observe only the appearance of thin filaments, which eventually turn into edible mushrooms.Mushroom mycelium
Acquire quality planting material is only in specialized stores. It is necessary to give advantage to wood in which there are viable mushroom spores. They will be more resistant to diseases. Than planted from grain mycelium. You can buy the usual fungal spores. Only in this case it will take more time and effort to grow your crop. The procedure will resemble growing any crop from seed. Beginners should avoid this method.
For maximum yield, it is necessary that the mycelium spread as closely as possible into the compost. To do this, the landing should be warm. You can heat them with a special electric cushion. Heat is needed only during the incubation period. As soon as the mushrooms go into a growth phase, they are best kept cool. Well suited for this glazed and insulated balcony.
As a rule, shoots appear in the third week after planting mycelium. Willingness to harvest is determined by the cap. Cut ready mushrooms need only a knife, so as not to injure those who are still in the soil and are just preparing to give a harvest. Ready collection can be used both immediately and after pre-freezing.The scheme of growth of fungi from the mycelium in the cut
Other ways to grow mushrooms at home
In addition to the main, there are also additional ways to grow mushrooms. True, they do not bring such a large-scale result and are used primarily by children as experiments. For example, some types of mushrooms can be grown on log blanks. For this Hardwood sawn up to half a meter. This should be done no less than 2 weeks before the settlement of the mycelium.
In the resulting billet, in staggered order, holes are made at a distance of 10 cm. After that, the rods with mycelium must be sealed. A hammer can be used for this procedure.
Logs filled with mycelium are placed in the basement and wait until it fills the entire space. The procedure is long and can take up to 1 year. Key conditions are temperature and humidity.
There is a method of growing mushrooms in the coffee grounds. It contains many trace elements:
This environment is ideal for oyster mushrooms. In addition, the coffee grounds do not need to be further sterilized. The disadvantage of this method is that it is very difficult to get a large amount of freshly spiced cake at home. We'll have to ask him in the nearest cafe. The container for growing can serve as ordinary bags for freezing or ice cream containers.
Mycelium should be mixed with oilcake, and then tightly close the container. It can be identified for storage under the sink. Germination time will be about 1 month. As soon as the surface turns white, a small hole should be cut at the top of the bag. Through it it is necessary to make spraying water 2 times a day. After a week, you will notice how small mushrooms begin to grow.
Growing white mushrooms and other species at home for beginners is a very exciting and useful activity. The needs of your family can be fully satisfied, even without special skills and large areas. The main thing is patience and the desire to see the result. After all, you can raise them all year round!