Any gardener engaged in the cultivation of grapes for the subsequent manufacture of wine is familiar with a tool such as a crusher. There are several variations of the mechanism, which will be discussed in this article.
Why do you need a crusher for grapes
Crusher is a device with a simple mechanism. The most primitive construction consists of the following elements:
- bunker for loading berries;
- capacity in which the cake is going;
- crushing rollers;
- the frame holding all knots;
- handles driving shafts;
- gear systems.
The tool is used by private winemakers and industrialists to process grapes for the purpose of obtaining juice.Roll crusher for grapes
The principle of operation is based on filling the bunker with berries and setting in motion the working shafts, which, under pressure, press the skin and pulp, separating the juice. The processed product goes to the pulp chamber. A drive that causes crushing elements to move is mechanical and electrical.
The design feature is the gap, which is left specially between the working shafts. This allows you to squeeze the grapes without crushing the seeds. Damaged seeds have a negative effect on the taste of the juice, later giving the bitterness to the wine.
Types of crush
There are several types of grape mill design, each of which has several advantages.. The choice of the mechanism of winemakers is carried out taking into account the amount of processing and the required performance.
In addition, the equipment of the equipment with a comb separator has a direct impact on the taste of the drink, because the bones can both give a refined tartness and make the wine intolerantly bitter. The technology of processing grapes of red and even varieties allows for the presence of seeds, whereas in the manufacture of white wines, the procedure of filtering the juice is necessary.
With comb separator
Structurally, crushers differ in several ways, but the presence or absence of a comb separator is considered basic.. The importance of this element in the equipment is due to the spinning process, in which tannins and bitterness from the stem enter the juice.
Without comb separator
Structurally crushers with a ridge separator and without it are not significantly different, except that there are no ridges and the function of separating the berries from the brush. The processing of grapes is slower due to the fact that raw materials require preliminary preparation - the separation of grapes from the stem part.
Such units prepare high-quality wine mash., and the process of spinning is similar to production technology. The principle of operation of the shredder is based on squeezing the berries with shafts, followed by filtration of the juice by the comb separator.
The parameters of the gap between the two rotating shafts are adjusted depending on the grape variety used (the size of the stone is considered as a guide). The surface of the main structural element - shafts can be of several options:
- 4, 6, 8-blade.
Most factory-made crushers have profiled rolls.
Crushers, ridge separators, centrifugal
The design of crushers of this type are performed in horizontal and vertical versions. The principle of operation of the mechanism is based on the impact of the impact force of the rotor, rotating at a speed of 300-500 rpm. The equipment is equipped with a comb separator, which purifies the juice from the cake as much as possible.
Mechanical and electric crushers
The principle of operation of mechanical and electric crushers is the same only in the first case the system is operated manually, and in the second - with the help of an electric drive. A feature of the equipment is the presence of a comb separator, which is a kind of cylinder with a horizontal arrangement. The design of the cylinder also includes the shaft and screw blades, which help in the process of pressing to separate the berries from the ridges.
How to make a manual crush with your own hands
There is no need to purchase factory-assembled equipment for processing the crop from your backyard plot.. Build it completely easy with their hands. But first you need to decide on the type of construction and the required materials. A simple crusher will require a small number of parts, most of which can be replaced by improvised means.
The steps of assembling a simple design for squeezing grape juice
- Draw a drawing of the unit or use the finished as a base.
- To collect the bunker for loading of raw materials. The shape of the structural element is similar to the truncated inverted pyramid. The material for its manufacture is better to choose a tree of hardwoods (for example, oak). Plastic and stainless steel are also allowed.
- A shaft with blades (4-6 pieces) is installed along the bottom of the bunker. To make it, you need to take a pipe (diameter 30-40 mm) and plates (length 15-20 cm, width 8-10 cm) made of stainless steel. Weld the blades to the pipe in a staggered manner (alternating through the sides of the connection parts).
- Install the shaft into the holes in the hopperlocated at the bottom.
- To fix a grid on the lower part of the bunker. Its diameter must comply with the parameters of the processed berries. You can cut several pieces from metal grids with different cells at once and change them taking into account the grape variety used.
- The shaft is driven by a handle. To do this, bend the rod (at least 10-12 mm), giving it a zigzag shape. One side of the handle is fixed on the shaft.
- The basis of the design is the frame. It should be knocked out of wooden blanks in parameters slightly larger than the bottom of the bunker. The height must be at least 15 cm.
- 2 shafts with a gap of 2-3 mm are fixed to the frame. From the outer side of the frame to install on the gear shafts.
- On one of the axes of the roller set the handle.
This design has 2 handles that activate the comb separator and rollers that squeeze the juice. It is easy to improve the equipment by combining both mechanisms into a single manual control or electric (installation of an electric drive).
Purchase a ready-made grape crusher or assemble a simple device with your own hands - decide for everyone independently. But in any case, it is interesting to improve the existing model under certain conditions to facilitate the process of squeezing the juice. With an innovative idea, you can later share with like-minded people in the network.