It is considered to be a grape plant that grows exclusively in southern countries. This opinion is erroneous and irrelevant for today. Thanks to domestic and foreign breeders, the range of varieties is periodically updated with new developments, adapted to different climatic conditions, information on which is presented below.
Growing grapes in different regions of Russia
The territory of Russia is vast, so the climate in the regions may vary significantly. In many parts of the country such crops as grapes are successfully grown. In addition, the vine is unpretentious to the soil, with the exception of only saline and wetlands. Before planting the seedling soil is fertilized with organic matter. Enrich the soil is enough 1 time per year. When choosing a place, it is worth considering that the life cycle of the plant is approximately 25-30 years, therefore, 1.5 m indent from the walls of the fence and buildings should be done. The best landing time is considered to be autumn, namely, the month of September. But the timing may vary depending on the climatic characteristics of the regions.Many gardeners are engaged in viticulture, both in the south of Russia and in regions with harsh climatic conditions.
In order to consistently harvest a good crop from a vine, you need to choose varieties recommended for cultivation in certain conditions.
The climatic conditions of the Krasnodar Territory for grapes are considered ideal, so the best varieties are grown in this area. The ratio of warm days per year, average rainfall and sunlight makes a good bookmark for stable fruiting vineyards.
The main grape production is concentrated in the Anapo-Taman zone. The crop is distributed to other industries for processing and to markets for fresh consumption. The harvest time begins from the third decade of July and lasts until mid-October.
It is impossible to list all the varieties grown on the territory of the Krasnodar Territory, as the vineyards are constantly replenished with new developments of breeders. The most popular are the following types of culture:
Madeleine AnguswinGrapes Madeleine Anguswin
A vigorous plant of early aging. Harvesting begins in mid-August. Productivity depends on the quality of pollination, Shasla is the best pollinator, so both crops are planted next door. The average weight of the bunch reaches 180-200 g. The berries contain 15% sugar and 6.7% acid.
Pearls SabaEarly grape Pearls Saba
Berries ripen in late July - early August. Productivity is high (more than 8 kg from a bush), the stepchildren fruitfully bear fruit. After planting chubukov plant fructifies for 2-3 years. The ratio of sugar content (16%) and acidity (7.3%) is close to the ideal value. Possesses strong immunity, resists fungal diseases. Due to the shortage of planting material, reproduction is practiced by grafting.
Shasla whiteWhite Shasla grapes
Is one of the main, which is massively grown in the Krasnodar region. The plant early enters the phase of fruiting (already in the 2nd year), the bush is formed of medium size, strong immunity, which can be traced in resistance to fungal diseases. Berry has a high taste (sugar 15%, acid 6.7%) and good transportability.
ChaushGrapes Chaush variety
Early ripe variety, found throughout the region, but in small quantities. The harvest is ready for harvest in the third decade of August. Large clusters are abundantly formed on tall bushes; their weight reaches 420-500 grams. Productivity depends on the quality of pollination, the best pollinator is Shasla, so both crops are planted in close proximity. Indicators of sugar content - 14%, acidity - 6%.
Muscat HungarianGrape variety Muscat Hungarian
In the phase of fruiting plant enters the third year after planting seedlings. Muscat bushes sredneroslye with actively developing vines. Honey taste of berries indicates a high sugar content (more than 20%), with relatively low acidity (6.5%). A bunch of medium size curls up to 160-170 grams. It is intended for the use of fresh berries and for processing into juices.
The plant is originally from France, has a high yield. More than 7 kg of berries are removed from the bush. Grapes reach ripeness in the second half of September. Berries of large sizes, dark blue color with a characteristic wax coating. The taste harmoniously combines the sugar content (18.3%) and acid (7%). The average size of the cluster is 232 grams.
No less varied menu of grapes grown on the peninsula. The total number of species is close to a hundred. Favorable climatic conditions and soil fertility contribute to high yields. The lack of precipitation is compensated by the arrangement of vineyards with a drip irrigation system. When planting plants apply the scheme: 3x1.5 m. The largest plantations are located in the foothill zone (Bakhchisaray district), steppe (near Simferopol), as well as in the suburbs of Yalta, Alushta, Sudak.
Among the crops are the following:
AgadaiTable grapes Agadai
The table variety comes from Dagestan, differs in late maturity. Harvesting begins no earlier than the 20th of September. The plant develops normally on soils with a high salt content. In addition to fresh consumption, the crop is used for canning and making juices.
Albilo CrimeanAlbilo grape Crimean
The plant is of average maturity native to Spain. Grown for winemaking. Productivity makes 7-9 kg from a bush. Berry contains sugar 14%, acid 6.7%.
ItalyGrapes grade Italy
Large grapes collected in loose clusters, the average weight of which reaches 450 grams. Yellow-amber berries have a pleasant taste with a pronounced nutmeg note.
Berries ripen to the end of August. The bunch is formed loose with lots of grapes, average weight is 250-350 grams. The taste is not cloying, although sugar contains at least 16-17%. Differs in resistance to fungal diseases and good transportability.
Citron MagarachaGrape variety Citron Magaracha
Early-stage wine variety. The quality of taste and presentation makes the berry edible and fresh. The weight of a brush of a cylindrical form reaches 400 gr. Sugar content is high (23%) with acidity of 5-7%.
Culture is grown for fresh consumption and the manufacture of wine material. White berries ripen in late September - early October. Large clusters curtain up to 280 grams. Even after being stored in the refrigerator for 5 months, the grapes do not lose their taste and commodity qualities.
A promising area for growing grapes is the Astrakhan region. This contributes to the hot climate and the presence of Baer mounds. Deep occurrence of groundwater leaves more chances for plants to tolerate winter frosts.
Over the entire period of the existence of viticulture on an industrial scale, more than 300 varieties have been tested on Baer mills. The highest results were observed during the cultivation of the following varieties.
Codrean (white)White grape grape
The plant is a mid-term aging with a growing season of 130-140 days. The berries are greenish-yellow in a round-oval shape, the weight of one reaches 10-12 grams. The average size of the brush is 600-800 g., but there are also giants weighing 1.2 kg. Shrub easily tolerate frost down to -23 °. Codrius is resistant to mildew and gray rot.
DelightBunch of Grapes Delight
Early, with a growing season of 110-120 days. Differs in the increased resistance to fungal diseases and mildew. Cold resistance (up to -25 °) allows you to transfer harsh winters under cover. The yield of grapes Delight is more than 9 kg per bush.
Kishmish radiantKishmish radiant
Pink grapes of the middle early ripening period (vegetation 115-125 days). Advantages: high palatability, commercial value, long shelf life. The weight of a medium-sized cluster reaches 250-450 g. The sugar content - 17-21%, acidity - 6-7%.
MoscowGrapes Moscow variety
The plant of early term of maturing, differs in the unusual flavoring qualities filled with nutmeg and pineapple aromas. The culture is resistant to low temperatures, fungal diseases. The cluster is small, weight does not exceed 150 grams.
The climatic conditions of this region cannot be called ideal, but even there it is possible to grow grapes. Industrialists use frost resistant varieties. Additionally, they are covered with a special material for wintering. Private gardeners prilovchilis planted cuttings in the greenhouse. Among the recommended for the middle band:
- Laura - large green grapes have a pleasant taste, the bushes easily tolerate winter;
- Shun - large-sized dark-pink fruits ripen by the end of August, the plant is resistant to diseases;
- Nadezhda Aksayskaya - ripens at the end of August, the taste and appearance of the berry is similar to the sort Arkady;
- Victoria - beautiful large clusters with sweet berries, has a high yield (at least 7 kg from a bush);
- Phenomenon - ripens in mid-August, medium-sized berries taste very sweet .;
- Gala - very large fruits, formed into a loose cluster, are being tested in the region;
- Cherry - A plant of early term of ripening, fruits of the average sizes of pink color with high content of sugar.
- Nadezhda Aksayskaya
The weather conditions of the region do not allow growing any grape varieties; therefore, special selection ones are selected that have frost resistance. Among other things for the winter, the bushes are covered with a special material to prevent freezing.
Designed for growing under cover. The average size of the brush reaches 600 g. The berries are medium in size, dark blue. The peculiarity of the variety is in long-term storage, the grapes retain their presentation until the New Year holidays.
Far Eastern NovikovaGrapes Far Eastern Novikov variety
Variety of universal purpose of early ripening. It withstands temperatures down to -28 °, but requires shelter for the winter period due to the climatic features of the Primorsky Territory. A small cluster weighing up to 250 gr., Dark blue berries with an unusual but original taste.
The plant is early ripe with greenish-yellow grapes, whose weight does not exceed 8 grams. Grade advantage - frost resistance (-30 °), however, shelter is required for wintering. The fruit contains 16% sugar content and 7-9% acidity.
Pink is not coveringGrape variety Pink not covering
Table variety of early aging. The berries are very tasty (sugar 20%), but small. Cluster weight - 150-200 gr. The crop does not lose its presentation for a long period, even on the vine. Under proper conditions, it remains until the New Year holidays.
The climate of the Rostov region is also suitable for growing the best varieties of grape selection. There is enough light, heat and moisture. However, to select the type (covering and not covering), it is necessary to visually divide the area into 2 parts, higher than Kamensk and lower. Ukryvnye species are recommended for landing in the south.
Not everyone is aware of the fact that wines are produced in the region, presenting a real competition to French collectible drinks. Among the popular varieties:
- Autumn black;
- Somerset Sidliss et al.
- Valentine Grapes
- Grade Arkady
- Grapes Somerset Sidliss
- Grape Talisman
Every year, the owners of vineyards practice updating the range of varieties using proven grape varieties and the latest developments. New approach and application of innovative technologies allows you to increase the profitability of agricultural enterprises, bringing their achievements to the world level.