Cardinal grapes can be found on almost every household area of Russia. Gardeners respect this plant for its excellent combination of unusual taste, rapid ripening and good stability. Grapes are popular for their taste and yield level.
Grape cardinal description
Speaking of the description, the culture matures pretty quickly. The growing season lasts from one hundred and ten to one hundred and twenty days, the harvest can be started in the second half of August. However, it should be noted that from year to year the yield of grape crops is not very stable.
One shrub is capable of forming at least seventy fruit-bearing vines. On each shoot grows one - two clusters. Under favorable weather conditions, the bush adds up to three meters in height. Ripening shoots good, almost the entire length.
The density of saturated green foliage is average. On each leaflet you can see five blades. The flowers have pistils and stamens, therefore they have the ability to pollinate on their own.Grape cardinal
Grape brushes are rather bulky, reaching thirty and twenty centimeters in length and width, respectively. But while their weight is not very large, because the berries are placed loosely. On average, one brush weighs four hundred - five hundred grams.
Characteristics of berries
They are distinguished by oval forms, weighing five to seven grams. Each berry bears in itself from three to five roundish sunflower seeds. The fruit is a purple-red hue, on the skin is visible a raid of smoky color. The flesh is greenish-white, juicy, during chewing produces a crunch. The skin is quite dense.
Acidity is seven - eight grams per liter, the sugar level reaches eighteen percent.
The advantages and disadvantages of the variety
Choosing this grape variety for cultivation on the site, gardeners first of all pay attention to its advantages:
- the harvest is distinguished by its ability to persist for three months;
- taste of berries is excellent;
- grapes are well transported over long distances, do not lose their attractiveness, they are not damaged;
- berries produce high-quality preservation;
- culture does not need special care.
But with such virtues, there are negative points. If you know about them in advance, then the difficulties in cultivating the grapes will not create:Grape cardinal closeup
- plant distinguished by medium level of resistance to powdery mildew, mildew and bacterial cancer. Quite often, the berries can be affected by gray mold. One of the enemies of the vine is a bunching moth;
- The future harvest fully depends on weather conditions. Under adverse weather conditions, the inflorescences and ovary fall off, the berries are small in size, which worsens the presentation of the bunch;
- plant does not tolerate the winter period, it can be affected by spring frosts, since flowering begins quite early;
- often happens uneven ripening of berries.
Like the rest of the grape plants, the Cardinal prefers warm and sunny places. It should be planted in the springtime, choosing for this the southern directions, which is associated with low tolerance to the variety of the winter period. Planted in the fall of a young plant can be easily damaged by the cold.
At the time of planting the soil should warm up to ten degrees of heat. It is very important that loamy and sandy-loamy soils prevail on the site. Chernozem places will give the opportunity to get the best yields.
In one or two weeks the plot is dug up, fertilizers are applied in the form of compost or manure.
A landing pit is being prepared, the dimensions of which should be 80 by 80 by 80 centimeters. Organic matter is laid on its bottom, covered with a layer of earth. The sapling is established, powdered with soil, it is watered. The landing pattern is taken 2.5 by 3 meters.
Care for a young and mature vine
Grape plant is very capricious, requires careful maintenance.. Only in this case, you can get good yields. Shrubs should be moderately watered before flowering and after the formation of berries. Under each plant pours up to ten liters of water.
To keep the moisture in the soil for a long time, mulching is used, using for this purpose humus, mowed grass, sawdust.Mulberry bed with cardinal grapes with black film
It is necessary to feed the plants with mineral fertilizer compounds, conducting three to four procedures in a season: before the foliage dissolves, before the beginning of flowering, after the inflorescences fall and after the harvest is completed.
For prophylactic purposes, plants are treated with fungicidal formulations. The preparation is added to water, spraying of green mass is carried out.
For the winter season, the vines need protective shelters.
This can be done by planting seedlings and grafting cuttings. Good grafting material should have a few eyes. The bottom of it is cut off to get a wedge. The cut side is kept in water for several hours so that the root system develops better. The correct solution is the use of growth stimulants such as "Gumat".
The variety is actively cultivated by Italians, French, Greeks, and Yugoslavs. It is often used as the main component for the production of wines and tinctures in many countries around the world.
Diseases and pests
The best solution is to use fungicides before flowering of bushes and after this period. If diseases are detected, the plants must be re-treated. Preparations should be selected universal, not harmful to plants.
Wasp crop is protected by two methods - wrap clusters with gauze or place bait with poisons.
"Cardinal" is considered a delicious grape variety, it can be grown on the site of any summer resident. But in order to get high yields, it is recommended to study the rules of care and strictly observe them.