Fungal disease - gray rot affects not only the berries, but also the bush. During the rainy season and in wet weather, this disease can destroy most of the crop. Spores of the fungus that excite this type of disease are in the soil and are not afraid of low temperatures and drought.
External signs of the disease on strawberry bushes
The first sign of the occurrence of this disease is the appearance on the berries dark, slightly depressed spots.
In place of the stain, the tissues of the fetus soften and become sluggish and watery. The fruit loses its inherent aroma, characteristic color and taste. For a short period of time, the spots spread, and a gray patina appears on them.The first symptom of the disease is the appearance of dark depressed spots on the fruit.
Berries rot and thus spread spores, infecting nearby growing healthy bushes in the garden. This disease can occur not only during the fruiting period, but also during the flowering period, affecting the flowers. The greatest danger of this disease is during storage.
Causes of rot and fungal spread
Spores of a fungal infection are constantly in the air and in the ground, but for the spread of this disease the following conditions are necessary:
- Wrong site selection for landing. The bed for the growth of strawberries should be illuminated by direct sunlight and well ventilated. In poorly ventilated beds, the spores of this disease develop quite rapidly;
- Too thick landing. Growing, strawberry bushes form a shadow, why the earth is enough under them and does not warm up, and there is not enough air access. In this case, to eliminate this problem, strawberries need to be planted;
- Excessive moisture. During the period of rains or heavy irrigation, increased humidity is formed, which is the cause of the spread of the fungus. Loosening the soil and sheltering the strawberry beds during frequent rains will help to avoid contamination;
- A large number of weed grass. The presence on the garden of a large number of weeds limits the access of fresh air and prevents good blowing of the garden. It is necessary to timely weed the beds;
- Mechanical damage. Fruits damaged mechanically, as well as slugs and insects very quickly become infected with this type of fungus.
Ways of dealing with gray mold
There are a number of activities and methods for dealing with gray mold:
- Collection of infected fruit and their disposal. Fruits gently tear and bury remotely from the place of growth. Throw infected berries can not. Spores of the fungus spread by wind and infect healthy plants.
- With a strong thickening of the plants, it is necessary to remove the excess leaves and thin the frequency of the bushes. The introduction of ash in the ground under the bushes and pollination of plants. Temporarily stop watering until the topsoil is dry.
- Feed the bushes with the following solution:
- water - 10 liters;
- potassium permanganate - 2 grams;
- boric acid - 2 grams;
- iodine - 20 drops.
When processing it is necessary to touch the lower surface of the leaves.
- Sure to exclude contact of the fruit with the ground. To do this, you can do mulching with straw or pine needles, tie up the bushes, using special frames for these purposes.
Fighting gray mold with chemicals
Processing is required three times:
- as soon as the leaves begin to grow;
- after tying the buds;
- after the whole crop has been harvested.
It is recommended to carry out the processing of these drugs:
- "Horus" at temperatures above +3 degrees, it reaches the highest efficiency until high temperatures are established. With the onset of heat the activity of the drug increases, but this significantly shortens the period of action. According to this treatment must be carried out at the very beginning of the season.
- Teldor used to protect the berries during transport and during storage. When hit on the surface of the drug forms a thin film that protects against penetration into the tissue of the pathogen.
- "Switch" prevents the appearance and spread of fungi, inhibiting their activity. It promotes better storage of fruits.
The use of folk remedies
To combat gray rot effective folk remedies are:
- Iodine solution. Dilute 10 drops of iodine in 10 liters of water and spray it when a disease is detected and as a preventive measure. Spraying is carried out 1 time in 7 days.
- Mustard solution. In 5 liters of hot (non-boiling) water dilute 50 grams of dry mustard powder. Insist two days, strain, dilute with water in a ratio of 1: 1 and process the strawberries in the spring with this solution.
Preventive measures to prevent the disease include:
- Timely removal in the weeds beds;
- Tillage ash or lime;
- Processing bushes bordeaux mixture;
- Removal of foliage from the bushes after harvest. It is necessary to carry out the removal in advance so that new leaves grow on the bushes before the onset of frost;
- Change the place of growing strawberries every three years;
- Do not leave ripe berries on the bushes;
- Remove diseased berries from the bushes and dropping them;
- Mulch beds with pine needles or dry straw.
To protect strawberries from the appearance of gray mold, experts advise:
- remove mulch left over from last year and dry foliage, as they contain gray rot spores;
- timely strawberry fertilizer helps to strengthen the bushes and disinfect the soil;
- Do not fertilize with mullein, as it is a favorable breeding ground for the fungus;
- Do not use nitrogen-based fertilizers, as this contributes to the excessive growth of the bushes. Growing bushes form a shade, which prevents the full heating and ventilation of the soil;
- after each watering necessarily loosen the soilto prevent the stagnation of moisture promoting the development of the fungus;
- prevention of disease can contribute planting between rows of strawberries onions, or garlic. Their biologically active substances inhibit the development of the fungus;
- Before flowering, it is imperative to treat strawberries with special preparations for a fungal infection.
In order to protect strawberries from infection with gray mold, it is necessary to create proper conditions - well heated and ventilated beds. A patient and caring care reward good harvest of ripe and healthy berries.